2.1 Livelihood Analysis and Development
CNRS encourages opportunities for sustaining livelihoods of poor people involved in harvesting common pool resources. In reality, such families employ complex strategies in order to ensure their livelihoods. CNRS therefore has used to employ Livelihood Framework Analysis advanced by DFID to better understand the resource utilization, economic strategies and unmet opportunities within
the project areas. This information is being used to develop more comprehensive approaches to enhancing the human infrastructure and development of sustainable livelihood within the project areas.
2.2 Community Based Management
CNRS has been working to develop and sustain livelihood of poorer communities. It requires applying locally suitable and appropriate methods reaching community consensus on interventions packages. CNRS adopts community-based approach where the local user communities and related stakeholders have a major part in designing and planning the management options and interventions for their specific livelihood options. Under various projects, community takes active role in implementation of each of the management interventions jointly with the respective project staff.
2.3 Institutional Development
CNRS accomplishes a three level management structure of local institutions which are being constituted under different projects. The First Tier consists of Groups and Village Committees. The Village Committees are being turned in to Community Based Organizations (CBOs) registered under the Cooperative Department as primary cooperative societies or with the Social Welfare Department. The second tier is an informal networking body for adaptive learning, conflict resolution and policy advocacy with the representatives of primary societies/CBOs. The Third Tier consists of the Upazila/Cluster Committees are being formed as apex body in each project sites.
2.4 Public Private Partnership
Public – Private Partnership (PPP) is a relatively new experience for Bangladesh. The term “Public-Private Partnership” describes a plethora of possible relationships among public and private entities (private companies,
NGOs, CBOs etc.) in the context of infrastructure and other projects and services. In a PPP, the public sector retains a significant role, either as the sole purchaser of the services or as the main enabler of the project. The private party commonly provides the detailed design, construction, operation, and financing for the PPP project, and is paid according to the performance. Through PPP, the skills, assets, and/or financial resources of each of the public and private sectors are allocated in a complementary manner, thereby sharing the risks and rewards to seek to provide optimal service delivery and good value to citizens. In PPP projects, the private sector is the active party who undertakes activities, depending on the model. A successful PPP is perceived as a mutually beneficial approach for both public and private partners. The private sector can apply their innovation, expertise, latest technology, creativeness, efficiency, experience and their quality of work in the development and implementation of key sectors for growth in the country. On the other hand, the government can provide support and assistance through legal environment conducive and PPP friendly and regulatory networks. Through such collaborative networks, the government can ensure more efficiency in service delivery to the citizens; achieve faster and sustainable economic growth; have access to private investment and schedule certainty; enjoy greater confidence from the local and foreign investors; have more skilled, fewer and better paid off staffs; and exchange manpower with the private sector for capacity building. Similarly, the private sectors can expand their business; enhance more productivity in an enabling environment; and can participate in the overall economic development process of the country. The concept of PPPs to implement projects is a radical transformation. It is a revolution in terms of decision making; risk sharing, formulation and implementation, strategic management, accountability, personnel management and so on. Quick service delivery, efficient execution of public projects, diversity in goods and services require the PPPs model. It is a networking approach in infrastructure and other services where the private sector and the general people along with the government work for the country’s development and progress. CNRS, under the PPP model, supplied materials, engaged in various activities at a time such as financing, designing, community mobilization, construction, ownership, maintenance, and management in different projects. CNRS used the latest and cost effective means and technologies in order to complete the project allocated which enabled the best source of value for money gain.
Public Private Partnership: few facilitation experiences of CNRS
Partnership of CNRS with IFC (the World Bank group) and multiple business entities for promoting Solar System like Solar Home System, Solar Lantern System, Solar Charger System, Solar Street Light System in 2014-15.
CNRS developed a business model of mini grid solar system in the remote 3 Haor areas villages in Fenarbak UP under Jamalganj Upazila of Sunamgnj district with the consensual agreement among Local Government, Community Institutes and Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd in 2003-2004.
CNRS facilitated solar irrigation system as a business model including buried pipeline with the consensual agreement between Department of Environment, Village Conservation Group (VCGs under ECA Rule) and Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd during 2012-13.
CNRS facilitated partnership arrangements between Tour Operators and Forest Departments for promoting sustainable tourism facilities in Khadim Nagar National Park and Lawachara National Park under USAID’s CREL during 2014-2017.
CNRS facilitated partnership arrangements between Tour Operators, Boat Operators, Community Institutes and Local Government for promoting sustainable tourism facilities in Tangua Haor during 2019-202021.
CNRS facilitated agricultural input support e.g. fish seed, crop seed, fertilizer, pesticide facilities ensuring quality and sustainability in all UPs under all upazilas of Moulvibazar district with the consensual understanding among community institutions, local government bodies, line departments at the
Upazila level (e.g. DAE, DOF and DLS) and business entities such as hatchery owner, seed producers during 2016 to 2022.
CNRS Facilitates partnerships between community groups and export-oriented business entities such as wood technology (e.g. Hatil), Pebble (Hatey Bunano), crotchet cap, safe dry fish & vegetable, etc. from 2011 till to date.
2.5 PAPD (Participatory Action Plan Development) as Consensus Building among the stakeholders
Having identified and characterized the communities and stakeholders in villages around the project area, the next step is to build a community consensus on resource management options, interventions and development of a management action plan. The consensual plan of action should have directions for implementation of interventions, monitoring, institutional aspects, benefit distribution mechanism, and other related issues and aspects. PAPD (Participatory Action Plan Development) method had been developed and tested in Bangladesh by CNRS and Newcastle University, UK in 1996. Since then, CNRS has been applying PAPD in various project sites (MACH, SEMP, CBFM-2, etc) and found it to be a very effective tool for participatory planning. Activities under PAPD are as follows: Problem Census, Cause-effect analysis, Problem Cluster and Prioritization, Analysis of solutions, Consensus on Solutions, Implementation of consensual action plan, and Formation of local committees.
2.6 Survey, Research, M&E and Spatial Data Development and Analysis
Considering the need and management complexity of environment and natural resources, CNRS established its GIS Unit in 1998 for providing different spatial related support for better decision-making processes. Initially it was thought that the GIS unit would support the need of CNRS internal projects. However, over time, the Unit has been developed to a stage that also started satisfying the need of the external clients on contract basis viz. LGED, SDC, ECFC project-FAO/DoF and others.
CNRS is capable to provide GIS support in below field:
- Reducing Diatery Related Risks Associated with Non-Communicable Diseases
- Process Monitoring, Process Evaluation
- Resource Inventorying and Mapping in haor and coastal area
- Impact and baseline survey, data entry and analysis, use of quantitative and qualitative tools
- Research on natural resources, socio-economic, climate change and disaster
- Established DEM, Water volume, area determination and calculation
- Cropping pattern, crop production, damage inventorying and mapping
- Bio-diversity mapping and habitat selection
- Khas land identification and land right mapping
- Mouza data base development
- Participatory GIS (PGIS)
- GPS Survey conduct and database development
- Satellite Image interpretation and mapping
2.7 Participatory Monitoring (Report Card)
Participatory monitoring is considered as an important aspect to build capacity of CBOs. CNRS relies on qualitative tools of monitoring beside various quantitative tools. Report Card and Diary methods are thus frequently used in CNRS as qualitative tools of monitoring. Diary method has been using for monitoring of projects to the “most significant changes (MSC” advanced by Dr. Rick Davies). On the other hand, report card has been using as participatory monitoring tool under IFM, CBFM-2 and SIPP projects. Report Cards have a number of strengths a monitoring tool:
- They can assess a number of criteria simultaneously in a simple tool
- They output quantitative, score, data
- They can be self-administered by communities.
2.8 Community Mobilization
As experienced, before going in to the activities related to community mobilization, CNRS undertakes certain activities to have better understanding of the biophysical, socioeconomic and cultural on texts of the communities and sites. This provides the team inputs for developing a clear road map for the rest of the works to be accomplished for community mobilization. CNRS undertakes following activities under community mobilization:
Understanding of the local context, identification of relevant community groups, identification of key
villages where the resource users /target people live, definition of local communities, reaching the communities, identification of other stakeholders, project briefing with primary and secondary stakeholders, awareness building – recognizing the problems of the majority, orientation of local leaders, understanding the resource systems and community interactions, current livelihood, resource and land use pattern, understanding of the extent of community dependence on common pool resources, understanding of local institutional arrangements, local institutional arrangements in relation to access, use and control of resources, institutional and social mapping, consensus building among the stakeholders and participatory planning, formation of local committees, monitoring and baseline development, strengthening the capacity of local institutions.
2.9 Capacity Building and Training
Empowerment of community is very much linked with the level of capacity of community. Thus CNRS considers capacity building activities as an important activity for the sustainability of development of community. There is no alternative of training for enhancing capacity of community. Keep this in mind CNRS developed a strong training team along with the required facilities through which CNRS has been conducting series of capacity building and skills development training.
2.10 Private-public Linkage Development
CNRS considers this as a very important activity towards sustainability of the development process initiated by organized poor. Development is a continuous process and cannot be achieved within a particular project period. It needs a regular public support to tap resources and establish rights of poor people. Local level governance may contribute a lot to keep the pace of development in this regard. Keeping this in mind, CNRS has been testing various model of Public-Private linkage development. Under CBFM-2 project, CNRS has been undertaking 3-level linkage
development workshops in each and every year at grass root, upazila and regional level. Under MACH project, representative of project formed CBOs take participation in the UZ and UP level meetings as an observer. There are project committees constituted with the representative of local government bodies, local administration and CBOs at the upazila level. An upazila level workshop has been taken place under SEMP project. CNRS has very interesting experiences and results of those initiatives.
CNRS has been facilitating for establishing sound local level governance. CNRS follows community-based approach for enhancement, development and improvement of livelihood of the poor. CNRS facilitated committees with the poor community members. Moreover, CNRS helps develop their relationship with local UPs as well as upazila level service providers. CNRS always encourages running their business democratically with equal participation of all members, facilitates promotional of institutional linkages and also encourage promotion of gender perspectives. CNRS creates local pressure groups by forming local network of CBOs and organizes demonstration on various local issues.
2.12 Right Based Activities
CNRS mission envisages conservation and protection of natural resources of haor and flood plain areas of Sylhet, Kishoregonj, Gazipur, Sherpur, Magura through community management. It on the identification of khas land and resources of those areas and has been trying to ensure the access of the poor particularly the poor fishers to those resources. The target groups are motivated to move
for their rights from the resource base to upazila levels through an organized process of advocacy facilitated by CNRS with the financial assistance of DEFID, UNDP, AAB. There is an instance that the
villagers of Matargaon of Jamalgonj upazila under Sunamgonj district have re-established their rights over khas lands. CNRS follows a systematic
method in this regard.
2.13 CNRS Linkage with Civil Society
CNRS has a good linkage with the community, local elected bodies, local professionals, civil society members and local administration for which mobilization of staff and community leaders have been easier. In its advocacy program, CNRS has involved some members of the civil society like lawyers, teachers, media and pressmen for which movement for right issues has become easier. CNRS recently with funding from Oxfam Hong Kong is running ‘Development of Haor Advocacy Platform’. Goal of the platform is to reduce community vulnerability of the poor and marginalized haor communities by improving governance situation of Haor areas through establishing a common and dynamic advocacy platform involving different actors/stakeholders; and by ensuring better support and services in the Haor area by influencing government, non-government and private sector actors/stakeholders through greater collaboration, coordination and community mobilization.CNRS organized Civil Society Body has been performing civil auditing of some government activities (e.g. repairing of embankment by BWDB) in a regular basis which could able to establish transparency of government work in some areas.
2.14 Community Risk Reduction (CRA)
CNRS has been conducting CRA and Risk Reduction Action Plan (RRAP) in the Haor areas of Sunamgonj District. The community has identified their needs and CNRS is implementing some of those interventions in Tahirpur under LDRRF project.
2. 15 Disaster risk reduction
CNRS is now working on knowledge banking of disaster prepardness experiences. The activities and potential of international, national and local NGOs are being recorded in a database that has a web portal.